Biography: Prof. Dong Zhanfeng is currently working at the Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning (CAEP) directly under the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), acted as the associate director of the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI). He is mainly engaged in environmental strategy and plan, environmental policy. He also serves as the senior environmental policy consultant experts for UNEP, UNDP, ADB, GGKP, OECD and other international agencies and as the council or committee membership of 17 international and domestic academic groups. He has presided over about 70 international cooperation and domestic research projects in recent few years. International cooperation projects were mainly funded by UNEP, UNDP, ADB, WB and EF, etc. Domestic scientific research projects were mainly funded by the National People's Congress (NPC), the State Council, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Ministry of Finance(MOF), the National Natural Science Foundation(NNSF) etc. He has made several recommendations on environmental policy to the State Council, MEP, National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC), National People’s Congress (NPC), MOF, State Administration of Taxation(SAT) , the local government departments, and many suggestions were adopted by the relevant ministries and commissions of China. He has published more than 120 papers in academic journals, 13 monographs 1 translation book.
Topic: Environmental Performance Trends in China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis at the Provincial Level
Abstract: The research work aiming to evaluate China’s sub-national and sub-regional environmental performance, analyzing the characteristics of the spatial variation, and identifies major influential factors of 30 provinces in China. Firstly, an operable provincial environmental performance assessment index system for China was established based on the country’s actual conditions analysis. Secondly, the work quantitatively evaluated the environmental performance of provinces and analyzed the variation trends relating to environmental performance of provinces in China, the relationship between environmental performance and economic development levels, and variations across different provinces. Thirdly, the work analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of environmental performance index scores in China’s eastern, central and western regions, and identifying China’s characteristics of environmental performance in regional spatial patterns. Forth, the research work analyzed the distribution of environmental performance of sub-national administrative regions, analyzed the variation in environmental performance of provinces and identified key indexes affecting environmental performance of provinces. The findings will provide references for making scientific environmental decisions and better implement the requirements of United Nations sustainable development goals.
Biography: Dr. Shanfang HUANG is serving as Associate Professor of nuclear engineering at Tsinghua University, China. In 2001, 2004, and 2008, he received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degree in thermal engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University, respectively. Before joining Tsinghua University in 2010, he did his postdoc research on nuclear safety at Shanghai Jiaotong University. In 2011-2012, he visited KAERI and POSTECH and collaborated with visiting Prof. S. T. Revankar from Purdue University. In the past fifteen year, his research interest has been focusing on two-phase flow and heat transfer, and nuclear safety. He has published more than 80 papers and about half in peer-reviewed publications. Six publications are in excellent scientific impact. He has applied 6 patents in which three have been authorized and the rest are under checking. Shanfang developed a series of novel probes based on capacitance measurement, which can be used to obtain void fraction, bubble velocity, and film thickness in two-phase flow. Some of the patents with regards to measurement techniques are promising to be applied in thermal engineering, oil production logging, and even space engineering. Recently, this has been extended to nuclear engineering.
Topic: Void Fraction Measurement in Two-phase Flows Based on a Needle-contact Capacitance Probe
Abstract: In gas-liquid two-phase flows, void fraction is directly related to heat and mass transfer which is often encountered in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, petroleum engineering, and etc. Therefore, it’s a key point to measure accurately the void fraction for scientific researches and industrial applications. Void fraction measurement techniques will be reviewed first in the past century. Then a novel technique based on a needle-contact capacitance measurement is proposed and discussed in detail. The working principle of this probe is theoretically derived, and verified by static experiments. Finally, dynamic experiments are carried out to obtain the raw signals covering plug, slug, churn and bubbly two-phase flows. Meanwhile, raw data are processed and standardized by four methods to calculate void fraction. The results show that the performance of the needle-contact capacitance probe is almost independent of temperature and salinity in the experimental ranges and stable with a variation below 1%. The trigger levels method is the most accurate to process the raw signals, with a maximum relative error of 4.78%.
Biography: Dr. Chen Bin is now a full professor and vice director in State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University. He received his Ph.D in 2002 from Xi’an Jiaotong University, China. Afterwards, he worked at the National Maritime Research Institute of Japan as Postdoctoral Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science from 2002 to 2004.
For more than a decade, Dr. Chen has devoted his efforts to the research of heat transfer in laser dermatology (vascular malformation and pigmentary lesions), in particular with the photon propagation and energy deposition in the laser treatment of Port Wine Stain. He is currently developing Monte Carlo method, bio-heat mass transfer model, as well as conducting animal experiment on thermal damage of blood capillary by 595nm and 1064nm laser, and Cryogen Spray Cooling in laser treatment of skin disease.
Recently, he severed as member of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; member of Editorial Board for: Journal of Procedural Dermatology, Journal of Clinical, Experimental and Cosmetic Dermatology, Comprehensive Journal of Science and Medicine, Journal of Clinical Dermatology and Therapy, American Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.
Topic: Recent Advance of Cryogen Spray Cooling for Laser Dermatology
Abstract: Port wine stain (PWS) is one kind of congenital vascular birthmark, with an incidence of approximately 0.3% to 0.5% in infants. The common choice for the treatment of PWS is laser surgery with a selected wavelength (typically 585 nm and 595 nm) to cause permanent thermal damage to the target blood vessels in the dermis, based on the principle of selective phtothermolysis. However, the competitive absorption of laser energy by melanin in the epidermis, which is above the dermis, not only reduces the therapeutic effect but also causes irreversible thermal damage to the epidermis, due to closer absorption peak of laser energy at the selected wavelength between the oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and melanin. Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) has been introduced to reduce the risk of thermal damage to the epidermis during laser surgery of PWS. A pulsed cryogen spurt with several decades of milliseconds (no more than 100 ms) is applied to the skin surface to cool the epidermis prior to laser irradiation and consequently enhance the threshold of laser radiant exposure for irreversible thermal damage to the epidermis. Although significant progress has been made in the past two decades for optimizing the cooling efficiency of CSC, it remains difficult to clear completely the diseased vascular vessel in the dermis for PWS patients (less than 20%). Meanwhile, nonspecific thermal injury to the epidermis commonly occurs even when irradiated at very low radiation exposures for darkly pigmented human skin due to the high absorption of laser energy by large content melanin in the epidermis.
In order to achieve higher heat flux, atomization and surface heat transfer characteristics by R134a and R404a are investigated including: 1) spray characteristics and heat transfer dynamics of pulsed spray cooling are compared between R134a and R404A. R404A generates the narrowest spray width for better spatial selectivity, and lower surface temperature with higher heat flux for stronger cooling capacity, with the potential of substituting the current R134a in the application of laser dermatology. 2) Using a straight-tube nozzle with expansion chamber, the introduction of the expansion chamber enhances the maximum heat flux by 18%. 3)A novel hypobaric pressure-modulatable technique is proposed. Lowering pressure to 0.1 kPa can produce 2.6 times maximum heat flux (from 247 kW/m2 to 641 kW/m2) for R134a, while qmax can be increased 1.8 times at 1 kPa as compared with 1 atm for R404a. In order to obtain a good cooling effect, the spray distance and pressure should be appropriately matched.
Biography: Dr. Andrey V. Brazhnikov is presently an associate professor of Siberian Federal University (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) and a professor of Russian Academy of Natural History. He had his graduation in Electrical Engineering from Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) in 1982 (major in Automatics and Telemechanics, Honors Degree, cum laude). He received Ph.D. degree in Electromechanics from Tomsk Polytechnic Institute (Tomsk, Russia) in 1985. Now he has more than 200 published scientific works and inventions.
Topic: Novel Types of Windmill-Electric Generation Plants
Abstract: One of the main disadvantages of the existing windmill-electric generation plants is their low energy efficiency that equals not more than 20 % (if the wind turbine axis is horizontal) or 35 % (if this axis is vertical). It is conditioned by low level of the wind energy utilization by the wind turbine current types.
In principle, it is possible to increase the wind generators energy efficiency by the increase of the aerodynamic force of lift (i.e. lift) acting on blades of wind turbine (both in a case when the wind turbine axis is horizontal, and in a case when this axis is vertical). But unfortunately at present all known methods of creation of lift are already completely used.
The author of this paper worked out the design principles for creating novel types of windmill-electric generation plants. The application of these principles will allow to increase considerably energy efficiency of wind generators. These novel principles of wind generators design are the following.
First, the use of novel principle of creation of the aerodynamic (and also hydrodynamic) force of lift that was discovered by the author of this paper. He named this principle “energy-difference principle of creation of the aerodynamic / hydrodynamic lift”. According to this principle, aerodynamic force of lift appears when some quantity of energy passes from some energy source to the air flow which is in contact with one of the surfaces of a wind turbine blade. The realization of this principle can be obtained, for example, in the case when the blades of wind turbine is fitted with energy sources (heat sources, sound sources, etc.).
Second, the use of the positive feedback for electric power supply of the energy sources of wind turbine blades. To fulfil this principle, the electric power supply of the energy sources of wind turbine blades must be provided from the output electric circuit of wind generator.
The combined application of the above mentioned principles allows to increase considerably the output electrical power of a wind turbine of the novel type in comparison with the existing wind generators (by a factor of 1.5-2.0).